Performance Analysis of Different Backoff Algorithms for WBAN-Based Emerging Sensor Networks

Sensors (Basel). 2017 Mar 2;17(3):492. doi: 10.3390/s17030492.


The Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) procedure of IEEE 802.15.6 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) use an Alternative Binary Exponential Backoff (ABEB) procedure. The backoff algorithm plays an important role to avoid collision in wireless networks. The Binary Exponential Backoff (BEB) algorithm used in different standards does not obtain the optimum performance due to enormous Contention Window (CW) gaps induced from packet collisions. Therefore, The IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA has developed the ABEB procedure to avoid the large CW gaps upon each collision. However, the ABEB algorithm may lead to a high collision rate (as the CW size is incremented on every alternative collision) and poor utilization of the channel due to the gap between the subsequent CW. To minimize the gap between subsequent CW sizes, we adopted the Prioritized Fibonacci Backoff (PFB) procedure. This procedure leads to a smooth and gradual increase in the CW size, after each collision, which eventually decreases the waiting time, and the contending node can access the channel promptly with little delay; while ABEB leads to irregular and fluctuated CW values, which eventually increase collision and waiting time before a re-transmission attempt. We analytically approach this problem by employing a Markov chain to design the PFB scheme for the CSMA/CA procedure of the IEEE 80.15.6 standard. The performance of the PFB algorithm is compared against the ABEB function of WBAN CSMA/CA. The results show that the PFB procedure adopted for IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA outperforms the ABEB procedure.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.6; MAC protocols; WBAN; analytical model; backoff algorithm; emerging sensor networks.