Based on the following experimental results we conclude that the serine-threonine transport system in Escherichia coli is a Na+-coupled cotransport system. (1) Addition of serine to cell suspensions induced H+ efflux in the presence of Na+. (2) Addition of serine to cell suspensions induced Na+ uptake by cells. (3) Imposition of an artificial electrochemical potential of Na+ in starved cells induced serine uptake. Some of these phenomena were observed when threonine was added instead of serine or inhibited when cells were preincubated with threonine. The Na+/serine (threonine) cotransport system was considerably repressed when cells were grown on a mixture of amino acids. Serine transport in cells grown in the absence of amino acids mixture was stimulated by Na+. The half maximum concentration of Na+ was 21 microM. Sodium ion increased the Vmax of serine transport without affecting the Km.