Neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) may detect infants with elevated immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) levels but with inconclusive sweat tests and/or DNA results. This includes cases associating (1) either the presence of at most one CF-causing mutation and sweat chloride values between 30 and 59mmol/L or (2) two CFTR mutations with at least one of unknown pathogenicity and a sweat chloride below 60mmol/L. This encompasses different clinical situations whose progression cannot be predicted. These cases require redoing the sweat test at 12 months and if possible at 6 and 24 months of life. This must be associated with extended genotyping. CFTR functional explorations can also help by investigating CFTR dysfunction. These infants must be initially evaluated in dedicated CF centers including bacteriological sputum analysis, chest radiology and fecal elastase dosage. A home practitioner must be informed of the specificity of follow-up. These infants will be reviewed in the CF center at 3, 6 and 12 months and every year. Any CF-related symptom requires reevaluation of the diagnosis. These guidelines were established by the "neonatal screening and difficult diagnoses" working group of the French CF Society. They aim to standardize management of infants with unclear diagnosis in French CF centers.
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