Radiation Exposure of Patients and Interventional Radiologists during Prostatic Artery Embolization: A Prospective Single-Operator Study

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017 Apr;28(4):517-521. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2017.01.005. Epub 2017 Mar 2.


Purpose: To prospectively analyze the radiation exposure of patients and interventional radiologists during prostatic artery embolization (PAE).

Materials and methods: Twenty-five consecutive PAE procedures performed with an Artis zee system in a single center by an interventional radiologist were prospectively monitored. The mean age, weight, and prostate volume of the patients were 65.7 year (range, 43-85 y), 71.4 kg (range, 54-88 kg), and 79 cm3 (range, 36-157 cm3), respectively. In addition to Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine radiation data, direct measures were also obtained. Radiochromic film was used to evaluate peak skin dose (PSD). The radiologist wore a protective apron and a thyroid collar, and a ceiling-suspended screen and a table curtain were used. To estimate the absorbed doses, nine pairs of dosimeters were attached to the operator's body.

Results: The average fluoroscopy time was 30.9 minutes (range, 15.5-48.3 min). The mean total dose-area product (DAP) was 450.7 Gy·cm2 (range, 248.3-791.73 Gy·cm2) per procedure. Digital subtraction angiography was responsible for 71.5% of the total DAP, followed by fluoroscopy and cone-beam computed tomography. The mean PSD was 2,420.3 mGy (range, 1,390-3,616 mGy). The average effective dose for the interventional radiologist was 17 μSv (range, 4-47 μSv); values for the eyes, hands, and feet were obtained, and were all greater on the left side.

Conclusions: PAE may lead to high x-ray exposures to patients and interventional radiologists.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Angiography, Digital Subtraction* / adverse effects
  • Arteries* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cone-Beam Computed Tomography* / adverse effects
  • Embolization, Therapeutic* / adverse effects
  • Embolization, Therapeutic* / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Exposure* / adverse effects
  • Occupational Exposure* / prevention & control
  • Occupational Health*
  • Occupational Injuries / etiology
  • Occupational Injuries / prevention & control
  • Patient Safety
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate / blood supply*
  • Protective Clothing
  • Radiation Dosage*
  • Radiation Exposure* / adverse effects
  • Radiation Exposure* / prevention & control
  • Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • Radiation Injuries / prevention & control
  • Radiation Protection
  • Radiography, Interventional* / adverse effects
  • Radiography, Interventional* / methods
  • Radiologists*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors