Prevalence and correlates of current daily use of electronic cigarettes in the European Union: analysis of the 2014 Eurobarometer survey

Intern Emerg Med. 2017 Sep;12(6):757-763. doi: 10.1007/s11739-017-1643-7. Epub 2017 Mar 4.


The study purpose was to analyze current daily and current daily nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (EC) use in the European Union (EU). Special Eurobarometer 429, a cross-sectional survey performed in a representative sample of 28 member states of the EU in November and December of 2014, was analyzed. The prevalence of current daily and current daily nicotine-containing EC use was 1.08% (95% CI 0.95-1.20%) and 1.00% (95% CI 0.88-1.12%), respectively, and was mainly observed in current and former smokers. Minimal current daily (0.08%, 95% CI 0.03-0.12%) and current daily nicotine-containing EC use (0.04%, 95% CI 0.01-0.08%) was observed among never smokers. Smoking cessation with the help of ECs was reported by 47.12% (95% CI 41.28-52.96%) of current daily and 49.14% (95% CI 43.12-55.17%) of current daily nicotine-containing EC users. Additionally, 33.18% (95% CI 27.67-38.69%) and 31.40% (95% CI 25.80-36.99%) reported reduction in smoking consumption, respectively. The strongest correlates of daily EC use were being current and former smokers. In the EU in late 2014, current daily EC use was predominantly observed in current and former smokers and was associated with high self-reported rates of smoking cessation and reduction. Current daily EC use by never smokers was extremely infrequent.

Keywords: Electronic cigarettes; Eurobarometer; European Union; Nicotine; Smoking; Smoking cessation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems / statistics & numerical data*
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • European Union / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence*
  • Self Report
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires