Despite Indonesia's high marine biodiversity, there is a lack of information regarding fish parasites in Indonesian waters. During a sampling of 136 teleost species from Indonesian waters, 22 of them were infected with larvae of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845, a genus with zoonotic potential. We genetically identified 118 worms, provide a revision of all available sequences of the ITS-1-5.8S-ITS-2 marker from Indonesian Anisakis in GenBank (n = 125), and establish 16 new host records. So far, 53 Indonesian teleosts harbour Anisakis spp., 32 of them with known sequence data, increasing the worldwide teleosts with genetically identified Anisakis from 155 to 177. Sequence analyses of this marker in the 243 Anisakis specimens identified 3 Anisakis sp. HC-2005 and 39 (16%) A. typica (sensu stricto). A. berlandi and A. pegreffii are reported for the first time from teleosts in the equatorial region and A. physeteris from the Pacific Ocean. The latter 3 species were exclusively found in the migratory scombrid Auxis rochei. Most common infection sites were the body cavity, with 299 (of 848) worms in the mesenteries surrounding the liver, and 129 unattached. Musculature infection was very low, demonstrating minor risk of anisakiasis for human consumers. A total of 193 worms (~79%) had a distinct genotype distinguished from A. typica by 4 positions in the ITS-1 region. This genotype is reported since 2008 as 'A. typica', 'sibling', 'Anisakis sp./type 1', 'sp. I', 'sp. 2' or 'sp. II'. To avoid further misleading identification, we hereby apply the subspecific entity Anisakis typica var. indonesiensis until description of the adults becomes available.
Keywords: A. berlandi; A. pegreffii; A. physeteris; A. typica var. indonesiensis; Anisakiasis; Anisakis typica (s.s.); Molecular genotyping.