Fenugreek Seed Powder Attenuated Aluminum Chloride-Induced Tau Pathology, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;60(s1):S209-S220. doi: 10.3233/JAD-161103.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the aged population and is characterized by the progressive loss of the hippocampal and cortical neurons, which results in memory and cognitive impairments. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) has been reported to have hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, hyperinsulinemic and anti-diabetic properties. Traditionally, it was used as a galactagogue and to treat anorexia, fever gastritis, gastric ulcers, and various nervous disorders. However, the neuroprotective effect of fenugreek seed powder against aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced AD rats has not been analyzed. The result of the present study indicated that the chronic administration of AlCl3 induced significant learning and memory impairments, oxidative stress, and alterations in the protein immunocontent patterns of IDE and CDK5 (enzymes involved in the metabolism of tau and amyloid proteins), pTau, GFAP and Iba-1, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, iNOS, NF-κB, COX-2, CDK5, BDNF, and STAT3. Our behavioral, biochemical, and molecular studies revealed that the co-administration of fenugreek seed powder significantly attenuated the AlCl3 induced memory deficits, amyloid and tau pathology, oxidative stress, and inflammation in AD rats could be due to the synergistic action of its active components.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; fenugreek seeds; inflammation; neuroprotection; oxidative stress tau pathology.

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum Chloride
  • Aluminum Compounds / toxicity
  • Alzheimer Disease / chemically induced
  • Alzheimer Disease / complications*
  • Animals
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor / metabolism
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Chlorides / toxicity
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Encephalitis / drug therapy*
  • Encephalitis / etiology*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Rats
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism
  • Trigonella / chemistry
  • tau Proteins / metabolism*


  • Aluminum Compounds
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Chlorides
  • Cytokines
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Plant Extracts
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
  • tau Proteins
  • Aluminum Chloride
  • fenugreek seed meal
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione