Approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and 50% of NMIBC patients who are treated with transurethral resection (TUR) have a recurrence of the disease and 5-25% of these patients progressed to muscle-invasive disease after repeated recurrences. NMIBC patients receive various treatments aimed at reducing disease recurrence and progression. Although the recurrence rate of disease remains above target, thus increasing treatment cost, the true rate of recurrence after the primary surgery is controversial. Recurrences can be categorized as either true recurrence due to aggressive tumor biology and implantation of floating cancer cells or false recurrence such as small, flat, or carcinoma in situ lesions overlooked in the primary procedure. Here we discuss new diagnostic methods and treatment options to improve outcomes and reduce recurrence rates in NMIBC.
Keywords: Bladder cancer; diagnostic assessment; intravesical chemotherapy; intravesical immunotherapy; predictive markers.