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. 2017 Sep;12(3):484-491.
doi: 10.1007/s11481-017-9735-8. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway Does Not Contribute to Prevention of Ulcerative Colitis by Novel Indoline Carbamates

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Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway Does Not Contribute to Prevention of Ulcerative Colitis by Novel Indoline Carbamates

Helena Shifrin et al. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. .

Abstract

Indoline carbamates, AN680 and AN917 decrease cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in peritoneal macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and in mouse tissues after LPS injection. They prevent nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1. Only AN917 inhibits cholinesterase (ChE) at relevant concentrations. ChE inhibitors decrease NF-κB by activating α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR). The current study compared the effect of rivastigmine, a ChE inhibitor, AN680 and AN917 on ulcerative colitis induced in mice by ingestion of dextran sodium sulfate (4.5%) solution. Rivastigmine (1 mg/kg), AN680 (2.5-10 mg/kg) and AN917 (2-5 mg/kg) were injected subcutaneously once daily for 8 days. Disease severity was assessed by disease activity index (DAI), colonoscopy, colon length and body weight loss, colonic levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and myeloid peroxidase (MPO) activity. AN680 (5 mg/kg) reduced DAI, colon shrinkage, weight loss, histopathological signs of colon damage, MPO activity, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels without inhibiting ChE. AN917 (5 mg/kg) and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg) inhibited ChE in plasma and colon by 65%, reduced DAI, MPO activity and IL-6, but not TNF-α or IL-1β. AN917 did not prevent weight loss or colon shrinkage. Mecamylamine abolished the reduction of DAI, MPO activity and IL-6 by AN917 and rivastigmine, indicating they were mediated by α7nAChR.

Conclusions: AN680 is very effective in preventing DSS-induced UC in mice and may therefore have potential therapeutic application in humans. Addition of ChE inhibition and indirect activation of α7nAChR lessens the efficacy of AN917 in this model.

Keywords: Cholinesterase inhibition; Colonoscopy; Cytokines; Dextran sodium sulfate; Mice; Myeloid peroxidase activity.

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