Objective: Nephrotoxicity is one of the major side effects that limit the use of cisplatin in cancer therapy. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis in renal cells is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated p53 activation. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer) is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in Korea, China and Japan. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effects of licorice extract (LE) and its active compound glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells.
Materials and methods: HK-2 cells were pretreated with LE or GA for 1 h and then treated with 40 μM of cisplatin for indicated times under the serum-free condition. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and caspase-3 activity. The intracellular ROS levels were determined by DCFH-DA assay. The expression and phosphorylation levels of protein were evaluated by Western blot and densitometry analysis.
Results: When treating HK-2 cells with LE or GA, both of them alleviated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. LE and GA inhibited caspase-3 activity and polymerase (PARP) cleavage in cisplatin-treated cells. LE and GA also inhibited p53 expression and its phosphorylation as well as ROS production in cells exposed to cisplatin. Meanwhile, LE and GA enhanced cisplatin-induced p21 expression, which then led to S-phase arrest in cell cycle and limited cell growth. Presumably, increased p21 expression may contribute to cellular prevention from cisplatin-induced apoptosis, because p21 is the key molecule to cytoprotection during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
Conclusions: These results suggest that LE and GA ameliorate cisplatin-induced apoptosis through reduction of ROS-mediating p53 activation and promotion of p21 expression in HK-2 cells.