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Tissue-Engineered Solutions in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Principles and Practice

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Review

Tissue-Engineered Solutions in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Principles and Practice

Sarah Al-Himdani et al. Front Surg.

Abstract

Recent advances in microsurgery, imaging, and transplantation have led to significant refinements in autologous reconstructive options; however, the morbidity of donor sites remains. This would be eliminated by successful clinical translation of tissue-engineered solutions into surgical practice. Plastic surgeons are uniquely placed to be intrinsically involved in the research and development of laboratory engineered tissues and their subsequent use. In this article, we present an overview of the field of tissue engineering, with the practicing plastic surgeon in mind. The Medical Research Council states that regenerative medicine and tissue engineering "holds the promise of revolutionizing patient care in the twenty-first century." The UK government highlighted regenerative medicine as one of the key eight great technologies in their industrial strategy worthy of significant investment. The long-term aim of successful biomanufacture to repair composite defects depends on interdisciplinary collaboration between cell biologists, material scientists, engineers, and associated medical specialties; however currently, there is a current lack of coordination in the field as a whole. Barriers to translation are deep rooted at the basic science level, manifested by a lack of consensus on the ideal cell source, scaffold, molecular cues, and environment and manufacturing strategy. There is also insufficient understanding of the long-term safety and durability of tissue-engineered constructs. This review aims to highlight that individualized approaches to the field are not adequate, and research collaboratives will be essential to bring together differing areas of expertise to expedite future clinical translation. The use of tissue engineering in reconstructive surgery would result in a paradigm shift but it is important to maintain realistic expectations. It is generally accepted that it takes 20-30 years from the start of basic science research to clinical utility, demonstrated by contemporary treatments such as bone marrow transplantation. Although great advances have been made in the tissue engineering field, we highlight the barriers that need to be overcome before we see the routine use of tissue-engineered solutions.

Keywords: barriers to translation; bioengineering; plastic and reconstructive surgery; regenerative medicine; stem cells; tissue engineering; translation; translational research.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Shortcomings of nasal and auricular cartilage tissue engineering.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Considerations in the field of tissue engineering.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Advantages and disadvantages of different cell sources utilized in tissue engineering.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Hierarchy of stem cells highlighting different degrees of potency. Yamanaka factors are used to induce differentiated cells to become pluripotent.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Advanced technologies for monitoring cell behavior and survival. (A) ICELLigence impedance based cell assay machine. (B) Proliferation curves at different cell seeding densities generated by iCELLigence. (C) The Renishaw inVia confocal Raman microscope allows identification of stem cells based on the scattering of photons due to vibrations of molecular bonds. (D) Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer is used for measurement of cellular bioenergetics.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Different environmental stimuli and the fundamental components of bioreactor technology.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Barriers to translation in tissue engineering.

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