Joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms from the mid-20s to the mid-30s predicting generalized anxiety disorder

J Addict Dis. Jul-Sep 2017;36(3):158-166. doi: 10.1080/10550887.2017.1303958. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Abstract

The current study examines longitudinal patterns of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms as predictors of generalized anxiety disorder using data from the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study. There were 674 African American (53%) and Puerto Rican (47%) participants. Among the 674 participants, 60% were females. In the logistic regression analyses, the indicators of membership in each of the joint trajectories of cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms from the mid-20s to the mid-30s were used as the independent variables, and the diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder in the mid-30s was used as the dependent variable. The high cigarette smoking with high depressive symptoms group and the low cigarette smoking with high depressive symptoms group were associated with an increased likelihood of having generalized anxiety disorder as compared to the no cigarette smoking with low depressive symptoms group. The findings shed light on the prevention and treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.

Keywords: Generalized anxiety disorder; Harlem Longitudinal Development Study; cigarette smoking; depressive symptoms; trajectory analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans
  • Anxiety Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Anxiety Disorders / psychology*
  • Cigarette Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Comorbidity
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Depression / psychology*
  • Female
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • New York City / epidemiology
  • Puerto Rico / ethnology
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology*
  • Young Adult