Background and objectives: To quantify thromboembolic and bleeding events in patients with low thromboembolic risk, who were chronically receiving vitamin K antagonists and undergoing elective surgery.
Material and methods: A descriptive, prospective, single-center study was conducted between December 2010 and July 2014. Patients aged over 18 years old, chronically anticoagulated with vitamin K antagonists and admitted for elective surgery were included in the study. We excluded patients with a creatinine clearance<30ml/min, a body weight>120kg, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, pregnant women, carriers of an epidural catheter for analgesia, patients who underwent unscheduled surgery and high thromboembolic risk-patients. Vitamin K antagonists were discontinued 5 days prior to the procedure without administering anticoagulant enoxaparin. The NIR was measured 24h before the procedure. A single dose of 3mg of vitamin K was administered in cases of a NIR>1.5. Vitamin K antagonists was resumed according to the surgical bleeding risk. Events were registered between 5 days prior to the procedure until 30 days after it.
Results: A total of 75 procedures were included in the study. Fifty-six patients (74.7%) received vitamin K antagonists for atrial fibrillation, 15 suffered from venous thromboembolism (20%) and 4 had mechanical heart valves (5.3%). Twenty-six patients (34.5%) underwent high-bleeding risk surgeries and 49 (65.5%) underwent low risk procedures. No thromboembolic event was recorded. Four bleeding events (5.3%) were reported, 3 of which were considered major bleeding events (2 fatal).
Conclusions: Suspending vitamin K antagonists with no bridging therapy performed in patients with a low thromboembolic risk does not expose such patients to a significant risk of embolic events.
Keywords: Antagonistas de vitamina K; Anticoagulación; Anticoagulation; Atrial fibrillation; Embolia; Embolism; Fibrilación auricular; Perioperative management; Perioperatorio; Thrombosis; Trombosis; Vitamin K antagonists.
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