The clinical and public health relevance of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is widely debated due to its increasing incidence, the resulting negative economic impact, and the potential for severe GDM-related pregnancy complications. Also, effective prevention strategies in this area are still lacking, and controversies exist regarding diagnosis and management of this form of diabetes. Different diagnostic criteria are currently adopted worldwide, while recommendations for diet, physical activity, healthy weight, and use of oral hypoglycemic drugs are not always uniform. In the present review, we provide an update of current insights on clinical aspects of GDM, by discussing the more controversial issues.
Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus; Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction; Peripheral insulin resistance; Selective screening; Universal screening.