The microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) or Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) are both involved in the development of non-specific inflammation. However, there are few reports about their effects on neuroinflammation. Here, we explored the mechanism of AGEs/RAGE/Rho/ROCK pathway underlying the non-specific inflammation and microglial polarization in BV2 cells. AGEs could activate ROCK pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. ROCK inhibitor fasudil and RAGE-specific blocker FPS-ZM1 significantly inhibited AGEs-mediated activation of BV2 cells and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). FPS-ZM1 and fasudil exerted their anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NLRP3 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. In addition, AGEs induced both M1 (CD16/32, M1 marker) and M2 (CD206, M2 marker) phenotype in BV2 cells. Fasudil and FPS-ZM1 led to a decreased M1 and increased M2 phenotype. Together, these results indicate that the AGEs/RAGE/Rho/ROCK pathway in BV2 cells could intensify the non-specific inflammation of AD, which will provide novel strategies for the development of anti-AD drugs.
Keywords: Advanced glycation end products; Alzheimer's disease; BV2 cells; Neuroinflammation; Rho kinase.
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