Cellular functions are mediated by complex interactome networks of physical, biochemical, and functional interactions between DNA sequences, RNA molecules, proteins, lipids, and small metabolites. A thorough understanding of cellular organization requires accurate and relatively complete models of interactome networks at proteome scale. The recent publication of four human protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps represents a technological breakthrough and an unprecedented resource for the scientific community, heralding a new era of proteome-scale human interactomics. Our knowledge gained from these and complementary studies provides fresh insights into the opportunities and challenges when analyzing systematically generated interactome data, defines a clear roadmap towards the generation of a first reference interactome, and reveals new perspectives on the organization of cellular life.
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