Utility of a routine urinalysis in children who require clean intermittent catheterization

J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Oct;13(5):488.e1-488.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2017.01.016. Epub 2017 Feb 24.


Background: Children who require clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) frequently have positive urine cultures. However, diagnosing a urinary tract infection (UTI) can be difficult, as there are no standardized criteria. Routine urinalysis (UA) has good predictive accuracy for UTI in the general pediatric population, but data are limited on the utility of routine UA in the population of children who require CIC.

Objective: To determine the utility of UA parameters (e.g. leukocyte esterase, nitrites, and pyuria) to predict UTI in children who require CIC, and identify a composite UA that has maximal predictive accuracy for UTI.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 133 children who required CIC, and had a UA and urine culture sent as part of standard of care. Patients in the no-UTI group all had UA and urine cultures sent as part of routine urodynamics, and were asymptomatic. Patients included in the UTI group had growth of ≥50,000 colony-forming units/ml of a known uropathogen on urine culture, in addition to two or more of the following symptoms: fever, abdominal pain, back pain, foul-smelling urine, new or worse incontinence, and pain with catheterization. Categorical data were compared using Chi-squared test, and continuous data were compared with Student's t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for individual UA parameters, as well as the composite UA. Logistic regression was performed on potential composite UA models to identify the model that best fit the data.

Results: There was a higher proportion of patients in the no-UTI group with negative leukocyte esterase compared with the UTI group. There was a higher proportion of patients with UTI who had large leukocyte esterase and positive nitrites compared with the no-UTI group (Summary Figure). There was no between-group difference in urinary white blood cells. Positive nitrites were the most specific (84.4%) for UTI. None of the parameters had a high positive predictive value, while all had high negative predictive values. The composite model with the best Akaike information criterion was >10 urinary white blood cells and either moderate or large leukocyte esterase, which had a positive predictive value of 33.3 and a negative predictive value of 90.4.

Conclusion: Routine UA had limited sensitivity, but moderate specificity, in predicting UTI in children who required CIC. The composite UA and moderate or large leukocyte esterase both had good negative predictive values for the outcome of UTI.

Keywords: Neurogenic bladder; Urinary tract infection; Urine analysis.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diagnostic Tests, Routine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Urinalysis / statistics & numerical data*
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / diagnosis
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / therapy*
  • Urinary Catheterization / methods*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / prevention & control
  • Urine / microbiology