Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides detailed assessment of body composition compartments. No studies have employed state-of-the-art MRI methods to accurately examine abdominal adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle in youth with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Therefore, this study aimed to describe AT distribution and skeletal muscle in the abdominal region of youth with PWS using MRI.
Methods: Anthropometric measures and whole-abdominal T1-weighted MRI were performed in sixteen (5 males and 11 females) youth diagnosed with PWS, and seventeen (10 males and 7 females) youth who did not have PWS (controls). Volume of subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular, and total AT, and skeletal muscle in the abdominal region were quantified using a semiautomatic procedure. Results were summarized using median and interquartile range (IQR, 25th-75th), and ANCOVA test was used (with age and sex as covariates) to examine differences in body composition compartments between PWS and control group.
Results: PWS group had similar age (10.5, 6.6-13.9 vs. 12.8, 10.0-14.4years; P=0.14) and BMI z-score (0.5, 0.2-1.3 vs. 0.2, -0.3 to 1.0; P=0.33) when compared with controls. Significant differences were observed in absolute volumes of total AT (PWS: 4.1, 2.0-6.6L; control: 2.9, 2.0-4.5L; P=0.01), subcutaneous AT (PWS: 2.8, 1.4-4.8L; control: 1.8, 1.1-3.2L; P=0.01), and intermuscular AT (PWS: 0.3, 0.1-0.4L; control: 0.3, 0.2-0.3L; P<0.005). Visceral AT/subcutaneous AT was lower in PWS (0.4, 0.3-0.5) compared to controls (0.5, 0.4-0.6), P=0.01. In addition, skeletal muscle volume was lower in PWS (1.5, 1.0-2.6L) compared to controls (3.1, 1.6-3.9L), P=0.03. Ratios of abdominal AT compartments to skeletal muscle were all higher in PWS compared to controls (all P<0.005).
Conclusions: PWS youth have greater abdominal adiposity, particularly subcutaneous AT and intermuscular AT, and lower volume of skeletal muscle compared to controls. The decreased ratio of visceral AT/subcutaneous AT in youth with PWS suggests an improved metabolic profile for the level of adiposity present; however, elevated ratios of AT to skeletal muscle suggest a sarcopenic obesity-like phenotype, which could lead to worse health outcomes.
Keywords: Adipose tissue distribution; Body composition; Magnetic resonance imaging; Prader–Willi syndrome; Skeletal muscle.
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