Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been prepared against rat T cell blasts. One MAb called MRC OX-40 recognized an antigen that differed from any previously described in that its expression was detected only on T blasts that also expressed the CD4 antigen. The OX-40 MAb did not detect an activation determinant of CD2 or CD4 molecules but recognized a distinct chain of mol. wt 50,000. The OX-40 MAb augmented T cell proliferation at late stages on in vitro responses. Other MAbs without obvious counterparts in other species were MRC OX-48 and MRC OX-49,50 which recognized cell surface molecules of mol. wts of about 95,000 and 90,000, respectively. The OX-48 antigen was not expressed on resting lymphocytes but was found on a subset of T and B blasts and also on other leucocytes. The OX-49,50 antigen was found on most haemopoietic cells but was expressed at greatly increased levels after lymphocyte activation and this was also the case for MRC OX-47 antigen which is of unknown Mr. The MRC OX-39 MAb was found to bind the rat IL-2 receptor; expression of this antigen was detected on thymic dendritic cells as well as on T blasts. The phenotype of rat T blasts compared to resting cells was also examined and changes in expression of L-CA, Thy-1, OX-2 and CD8 antigens were seen in addition to the changes found with the above MAbs.