Objectives: To quantify the relationship between exposure to lacosamide monotherapy and seizure probability, and to simulate the effect of changing the dose regimen.
Methods: Structural time-to-event models for dropouts (not because of a lack of efficacy) and seizures were developed using data from 883 adult patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy and experiencing focal or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, participating in a trial (SP0993; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01243177) comparing the efficacy of lacosamide and carbamazepine controlled-release monotherapy. Lacosamide dropout and seizure models were used for simulating the effect of changing the initial target dose on seizure freedom.
Results: Repeated time-to-seizure data were described by a Weibull distribution with parameters estimated separately for the first and subsequent seizures. Daily area under the plasma concentration-time curve was related linearly to the log-hazard. Disease severity, expressed as the number of seizures during the 3 months before the trial (baseline), was a strong predictor of seizure probability: patients with 7-50 seizures at baseline had a 2.6-fold (90% confidence interval 2.01-3.31) higher risk of seizures compared with the reference two to six seizures. Simulations suggested that a 400-mg/day, rather than a 200-mg/day initial target dose for patients with seven or more seizures at baseline could potentially result in an additional 8% of seizure-free patients for 6 months at the last evaluated dose level. Patients receiving lacosamide had a slightly lower dropout risk compared with those receiving carbamazepine.
Conclusion: Baseline disease severity was the most important predictor of seizure probability. Simulations suggest that an initial target dose >200 mg/day could potentially benefit patients with greater disease severity.