The effects of Ro 16-6028 and Ro 17-1812, two novel benzodiazepines with mixed agonist and antagonist properties, were studied in rats trained to discriminate either chlordiazepoxide or the benzodiazepine receptor ligand zolpidem. In rats discriminating 5 mg/kg chlordiazepoxide from saline both Ro 16-6028 and Ro 17-1812 produced responding on the drug lever. At a dose of 10 mg/kg both compounds gave rise to 100% responding on the lever associated with chlordiazepoxide. The dose-response curve produced by Ro 16-6028 was flatter than that for Ro 17-1812, however. The discriminative cue produced by 2 mg/kg zolpidem did not generalise to either Ro 16-6028 or Ro 17-1812. In contrast, both of those compounds antagonised the zolpidem cue and also antagonised the reduction in response rates produced by zolpidem. These results are consistent with previous findings that Ro 16-6028 and Ro 17-1812 may exert anxiolytic-like effects typical of benzodiazepines while antagonising the depressant actions of benzodiazepine receptor ligands. The results are also consistent with the suggestion that the discriminative cues produced by chlordiazepoxide and zolpidem may be mediated, at least partially, by activity at different sub-types of benzodiazepine receptors.