Chia Oil-Enriched Restructured Pork Effects on Oxidative and Inflammatory Status of Aged Rats Fed High Cholesterol/High Fat Diets

J Med Food. 2017 May;20(5):526-534. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2016.0161. Epub 2017 Mar 15.


Chia oil has the highest recognized α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. ALA is associated with beneficial changes in plasma lipids and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Present article aims to analyze the effect of Chia oil-enriched restructured pork (RP) on aged rats in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-year old) were fed the experimental diets: control RP diet (C) noncholesterol high saturated; cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high-cholesterol control RP diet (HC) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; and Chia oil- or Hydroxytyrosol RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high cholesterol (CHIA and HxT). Total cholesterol, hepatosomatic index, Nrf2, antioxidant, and inflammation markers were determined. CHIA reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect by lowering levels similar to C; also, ameliorated redox index. CHIA, despite high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content, reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and induced the lowest SOD protein synthesis but not a reduction on its activity. Chia oil activated the Nrf2 to arrest the pro-oxidative response to cholesterol and aging. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) system was lower in HxT than in CHIA, suggesting its antiatherogenic activity and related protective effect against high PUFA. Increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was partially blocked by CHIA. Chia oil has the ability to prevent oxidative damage and modify the inflammatory response, suggesting adequate regulation of the antioxidant system. Results stress the importance of incorporating ALA into the diet.

Keywords: NASH; ageing; antioxidant; cholesterol; inflammation; restructured pork.

MeSH terms

  • Aging / drug effects
  • Aging / immunology
  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cholesterol, Dietary / adverse effects*
  • Cholesterol, Dietary / metabolism
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects
  • GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor / genetics
  • GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia / diet therapy*
  • Hypercholesterolemia / genetics
  • Hypercholesterolemia / immunology
  • Hypercholesterolemia / metabolism
  • Male
  • Meat / analysis*
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / diet therapy*
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / genetics
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / immunology
  • Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Plant Oils / chemistry
  • Plant Oils / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Salvia / chemistry*
  • Swine
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology


  • Cholesterol, Dietary
  • GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor
  • Gabpa protein, rat
  • Plant Oils
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha