Many degenerative disorder such as Parkinsons, Alzheimers, Huntingtons disease, etc are caused due to the deposition of amyloid fibrils, formed due to the ordered aggregation of misfolded/unfolded proteins. Misfolded or unfolded proteins aggregate mostly through hydrophobic interactions which are unexposed in native state, but become exposed upon unfolding. To counteract amyloid related diseases, inhibition of the protein self assembly into fibril is a potential therapeutic strategy. The study aims at investigating the effect of selected compounds, namely trehalose and magnesium chloride hexahydrate towards inhibition and disaggregation of amyloid fibrils using Hen Egg White Lysozyme as a model. We further attempted to understand the mechanism of action with the help of various biophysical, microscopic as well as computational studies. A common mechanism of action was identified where the selected compounds exert their anti-amyloidogenic effects by altering HEWL conformations characterized by reduction in the beta sheet content and decrease in exposed hydrophobic surfaces. The altered conformation seems to have lesser amyloidogenic propensity leading to inhibition as well as disaggregation of amyloids.
Keywords: Amyloidogenesis; Circular dichroism; Hen egg white lysozyme; Hydrophobic; Thioflavin T.