Community-Acquired Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Virologically Suppressed HIV-Infected Adult Patients: A Matched Case-Control Study

Chest. 2017 Aug;152(2):295-303. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2017.03.007. Epub 2017 Mar 14.


Background: The study aimed to investigate whether the clinical presentations and outcomes (length of stay, ICU admission, and 30-day mortality) of pneumococcal pneumonia in virologically suppressed patients who were HIV-infected on ART with a CD4+ T-cell count > 350 cells/mm3 are comparable to those seen in patients with HIV, using a case-control design.

Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (2001-2016). Control patients were matched by age (±10 years), sex, comorbidities, and pneumonia diagnosis in the same calendar period. Clinical presentation and outcomes of pneumococcal pneumonia in patients who were and were not infected with HIV were compared.

Results: Pneumococcal pneumonia was studied in 50 cases (HIV infection) and 100 control patients (non-HIV infection). Compared with the control patients, case patients had higher rates of influenza (14% vs 2%, P = .007) and pneumococcal vaccination (10% vs 1%, P = .016). The group of cases also presented a higher rate of coinfection with hepatitis B virus (6% vs 0%, P = .036). Both groups presented similar ICU admission (18% vs 27%, P = .22), need for mechanical ventilation (12% vs 8%; P = .43), length of stay (7 days vs 7 days, P = .76), and 0% of 30-day mortality. No evidence was found of a more severe presentation or a worse clinical outcome in cases than in control patients.

Conclusions: Pneumococcal pneumonia episodes requiring hospitalization in virologically suppressed patients with HIV with > 350 CD4+ T-cell count/mm3 were neither more severe nor had worse prognosis compared with uninfected patients. These results support the fact that such patients do not need treatment, admission, or care sites different to the general population.

Trial registry:; No. 2009/5451; URL:

Keywords: HIV-infected patients; community-acquired pneumonia; pneumonia.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coinfection / complications*
  • Coinfection / drug therapy
  • Coinfection / mortality
  • Community-Acquired Infections / complications*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / drug therapy
  • Community-Acquired Infections / mortality
  • Critical Care / statistics & numerical data
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / mortality
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / complications*
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / drug therapy
  • Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / mortality
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Viral Load


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-HIV Agents