Purpose: This study investigated the long-term results of arthroscopic Bankart repair in terms of rates and timelines of recurrence of instability, with special interest in young adult patients aged ≤20 years.
Methods: Between 2000 and 2005, 186 shoulders [182 patients, 50 women, median age 26 (range 15-58) years] were operated on at a university hospital using arthroscopic Bankart repair because of instability after traumatic anteroinferior shoulder dislocation. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and patients were assessed using postal questionnaires or telephone interview after a minimum of 10 years of follow-up [median 12.2 (range 10-16) years]. The primary outcome measure was recurrence of instability (assessed from 167 shoulders), other outcome measures included Oxford instability score (OIS), subjective shoulder value (SSV), and Western Ontario instability index (WOSI) (assessed from 157 shoulders).
Results: At the end of follow-up, 50/167 shoulders (30%) had recurrence of instability and 30/167 (18%) were subjected to reoperation due to instability symptoms. Twenty-six (52%) failures occurred within ≤2 years, 11 (22%) within 2-5 years, and 13 (26%) >5 years after surgery. Failure rate was 19/35 (54%) for patients aged ≤20 years and 31/132 (24%) for patients aged >20 years; reoperation rates were 11/35 (31%) and 19/132 (14%), respectively. Mean OIS was 20 (SD 9, range 12-50), SSV 83% (SD 21, range 10-100), and WOSI score 80 (SD 22, range 33-100).
Conclusions: Nearly one-third of patients had recurrence of instability after arthroscopic Bankart repair after a minimum of 10-year follow-up. Patients aged ≤20 years did poorly with more than half of the patients having recurrence; alternative stabilization techniques should probably be considered for these patients.
Level of evidence: IV.
Keywords: Bankart operation; Long-term outcome; Shoulder dislocation; Shoulder instability; Surgery; Survival analysis.