Concentrations and analysis of health risks of ambient air metallic elements at Longjing site in central Taiwan

Environ Geochem Health. 2018 Feb;40(1):461-472. doi: 10.1007/s10653-017-9933-6. Epub 2017 Mar 16.


The concentrations of particulates and metallic elements that were bound to total suspended particulates in ambient air at Long Cyuan Elementary School (LCYES), Lung Ching Elementary School (LCHES) and Long Shan Primary School (LSPS) sampling sites in the Longjing area were measured. Significant difference tests were conducted at LSPS, LCYES and LCHES sites. Finally, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk values for LSPS, LCYES and LCHES sites in the Longjing district were evaluated. The results show that the most average particulate and metallic element concentrations were highest in October, November, January, February, March, April, August, and September The average particulate and metallic element concentrations at LCHES were higher than at the other sampling sites. The Concentration Scatter Diagrams reveal the absence of significant variation among the LSPS, LCYES and LCHES sampling sites in the Longjing district. Therefore, these sampling sites are inferred to have similar emission sources. The children and adults inhalation carcinogenic risks which referenced US EPA method were all within acceptable ranges. Non-carcinogenic risks revealed that all metallic elements considered herein were harmless to human health.

Keywords: Concentration Scatter Diagrams; Health risks; Metallic element; Particulate; TSP.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carcinogens / analysis
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Child
  • Climate
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Humans
  • Metals, Heavy / analysis*
  • Metals, Heavy / toxicity*
  • Middle Aged
  • Particulate Matter / analysis*
  • Particulate Matter / toxicity*
  • Population Health*
  • Quality Control
  • Risk Assessment
  • Schools
  • Seasons
  • Spectrum Analysis / methods
  • Taiwan
  • Young Adult


  • Carcinogens
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Particulate Matter