Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis of the Default Mode and Salience Network for Target Identification in Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation of Alzheimer's Disease and Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Networks

J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;57(3):825-843. doi: 10.3233/JAD-161105.


Background: The accurate choice of the site of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is an important factor in trial design.

Objective: Based on the observation that Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) affect specific large-scale networks, i.e., the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), respectively, we aimed to identify population-average coordinates of these networks that could be used as potential targets in NIBS trials aiming to modulate these circuits.

Methods: A systematic literature search of resting-state functional MRI studies reporting DMN and SN stereotactic coordinates was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Coordinate-based meta-analyses were conducted to identify consistent nodes of the DMN and SN using GingerALE BrainMap software and the activation likelihood estimation method.

Results: DMN coordinates mapped primarily to mesial areas (posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus [Brodmann Area - BA 23/31] and medial prefrontal cortex [BA 9/10/32]). More superficial areas mapped to the bilateral parietal (angular gyrus [BA 39]), temporal (middle gyrus [BA 21]) and dorsolateral prefrontal (superior gyrus [BA 8]) cortex. SN coordinates mapped primarily to mesial and deep frontal areas (anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex [BA 24/32]), but more superficial areas mapped to the bilateral parietal (supramarginal gyrus [BA 40]) and the right dorsolateral prefrontal (middle gyrus [BA 9/10]) cortex.

Conclusions: NIBS should target the bilateral angular, the middle temporal cortex, or superior frontal gyri in AD for DMN modulation, and the right middle frontal or supramarginal gyri in bvFTD for SN modulation.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia; default mode network; meta-analysis; non-invasive brain stimulation; salience network.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnostic imaging
  • Alzheimer Disease / therapy*
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Databases, Bibliographic / statistics & numerical data
  • Deep Brain Stimulation / methods*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Frontotemporal Dementia / diagnostic imaging
  • Frontotemporal Dementia / psychology*
  • Frontotemporal Dementia / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Models, Neurological