Introduction: Both excessive weight gain and weight loss are important risk factors in the older population. Neighborhood environment may play an important role in weight change, but neighborhood effects on weight gain and weight loss have not been studied separately. This study examined the associations between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and excessive weight gain and weight loss.
Methods: This analysis included 153,690 men and 105,179 women (aged 51-70 years). Baseline addresses were geocoded into geographic coordinates and linked to the 2000 U.S. Census at the Census tract level. Census variables were used to generate a socioeconomic deprivation index by principle component analysis. Excessive weight gain and loss were defined as gaining or losing >10% of baseline (1995-1996) body weight at follow-up (2004-2006). The analysis was performed in 2015.
Results: More severe neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with higher risks of both excessive weight gain and weight loss after adjusting for individual indicators of SES, disease conditions, and lifestyle factors (Quintile 5 vs Quintile 1: weight gain, OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.28, 1.45 for men and OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.13, 1.27 for women; weight loss, OR=1.09, 95%% CI=1.02, 1.17 for men and OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.14, 1.32 for women). The findings were fairly consistent across subpopulations with different demographics and lifestyle factors.
Conclusions: Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation predicts higher risk of excessive weight gain and weight loss.
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