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Review
, 1859 (9 Pt B), 1573-1582

Sphingosine 1-phosphate - A Double Edged Sword in the Brain

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Review

Sphingosine 1-phosphate - A Double Edged Sword in the Brain

Indulekha Karunakaran et al. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr.

Abstract

The physiological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its pathological roles in various diseases are increasingly being elucidated. Particularly, a growing body of literature has implicated S1P in the pathogenesis of brain related disorders. With the deciphering of more intricate aspects of S1P signalling, there is also a need to reconsider the notion of S1P only as a determinant of cell survival and proliferation. Further the concept of 'S1P-ceramide' balance as the controlling switch of cellular fate and functions needs to be refined. In this review, we focus on the brain related functions of S1P with special focus on its role in synaptic transmission, neuronal autophagy and neuroinflammation. The review also attempts to bring out the multi-faceted nature of S1P signalling aspects that makes it a 'double edged sword'. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá.

Keywords: Neuroinflammation; Neuronal autophagy; Phosphatidylethanolamine; Sphingosine 1-phosphate; Synaptic transmission.

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