Parabens are broad-spectrum antimicrobial preservatives and fragrances used in a wide range of personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and food providing the opportunity for people to be exposed on a daily basis. In 2009-2010, 80 pregnant women from Ottawa Canada participated in the Plastics and Personal-Care Product Use in Pregnancy (P4) Study. A subset of women (n = 31) who provided multiple spot urine samples (n = 542) collected over two 24-h periods had their samples analyzed for methylparaben (MP), n-propylparaben (PP), ethylparaben (EP), butylparaben (BP), isobutylparaben (IBP), and benzylparaben (BzP). These parabens were also measured in breast milk samples collected at approximately 3 months postpartum (n = 56 women). Women kept a diary of products that they used 24 h prior to and during the collection. All parabens measured in maternal urine had moderate to high reproducibility. Women who used lotions in the past 24 h had significantly higher geometric mean paraben concentrations (80-110%) in their urine than women who reported no use in the past 24 h. Women who used shampoo, conditioner, and cosmetics also showed 70-80% higher BP concentrations in their urine. Breast milk samples had >50% detection for MP, PP, and EP.