Objectives: This study investigated the association between habitual consumption of allium vegetables (garlic and onion) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, hypertension (HTN), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods: Adult men and women, participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2008 to 2012-2014), were recruited. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up examinations. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate the development of CVD outcomes, HTN, CKD, and T2D in relation to allium vegetable intakes.
Results: Mean age of participants (44.2% men) was 40.3 ± 14.3 years, at baseline. During an average of 6 years of follow-up, the incidence rate of CVD outcomes, HTN, CKD, and T2D were 3.3, 15.5, 17.9, and 6.7%, respectively. A higher habitual intake of allium vegetables was associated with a 64% reduced risk of CVD outcomes (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.18-0.71; P for trend = 0.011), 32% lower incidence of CKD (hazard ratio = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.46-0.98; P for trend = 0.11), and 26% decreased HTN development (hazard ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.00; P for trend = 0.06). No significant association was observed between allium vegetable intakes and the risk of T2D. Allium vegetable intake was related to 6 years' changes of triglyceride levels (β = -0.81, P = 0.01) and creatinine clearance (β = 0.56, P = 0.01).
Conclusion: Data of the current study support the available mechanistic findings regarding cardiorenal protective properties of allium vegetables.