As an important structural analogue of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS) has been used as alternatives to BPA in industrialized production. However, the immunotoxicity of BPS remains poorly understood. As a critical model in inflammatory responses, macrophages are used to explore the immunotoxic potential and mechanisms of BPS at environmentally relevant concentrations in our study. Here, we are combining molecular toxicology and mass spectrometry (MS)-based global metabolomics and lipidomics study together to estimate the variation of cytokines profiling and metabolism characteristic following BPS exposure. Our results demonstrated that BPS exposure induced pro-inflammatory phenotype by activating the immuno-related cytokines which include TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, modulating metabolic pathways which include glycolytic, glutathione (GSH), sphingomyelin (SM)-ceramide (Cer), glycerophospholipids (GPs) and glycerolipids (GLs). These toxicological mechanisms are providing us with a deeper understanding of the critical role of metabolites and lipids reprogramming in immunotoxicity of BPS.
Keywords: Bisphenol S; Immunotoxicity; LC-MS/MS; Lipidomics; Metabolomics; Pro-inflammation.
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