RNA polymerase II-interacting the Set2 methyltransferase co-transcriptionally methylates histone H3 at lysine 36 within the body of genes. This modification facilitates histone deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC in 3' transcribed regions to suppress cryptic initiation and slow elongation. Although this pathway is important for global deacetylation, no strong effects have been seen on genome-wide transcription under optimized laboratory conditions. In contrast, this pathway slows the kinetics of mRNA induction when target genes are induced upon environmental changes. Interestingly, a majority of Set2-repressed genes are overlapped by a lncRNA transcription that targets H3K36 methylation and deacetylation by Rpd3S HDAC to mRNA promoters. Furthermore, this pathway delays the induction of many cryptic transcripts upon environmental changes. Therefore, the Set2-Rpd3S HDAC pathway functions to fine-tune expression dynamics of mRNAs and ncRNAs. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(4): 162-163].