Photobiomodulation of wound healing via visible and infrared laser irradiation

Lasers Med Sci. 2017 May;32(4):903-910. doi: 10.1007/s10103-017-2191-0. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Abstract

Fibroblast cells are known to be one of the key elements in wound healing process, which has been under the scope of research for decades. However, the exact mechanism of photobiomodulation on wound healing is not fully understood yet. Photobiomodulation of 635 and 809 nm laser irradiation at two different energy densities were investigated with two independent experiments; first, in vitro cell proliferation and then in vivo wound healing. L929 mouse fibroblast cell suspensions were exposed with 635 and 809 nm laser irradiations of 1 and 3 J/cm2 energy densities at 50 mW output power separately for the investigation of photobiomodulation in vitro. Viabilities of cells were examined by means of MTT assays performed at the 24th, 48th, and 72nd hours following the laser irradiations. Following the in vitro experiments, 1 cm long cutaneous incisional skin wounds on Wistar albino rats (n = 24) were exposed with the same laser sources and doses in vivo. Wound samples were examined on 3rd, 5th, and 7th days of healing by means of mechanical tensile strength tests and histological examinations. MTT assay results showed that 635 nm laser irradiation of both energy densities after 24 h were found to be proliferative. One joule per square centimeter laser irradiation results also had positive effect on cell proliferation after 72 h. However, 809 nm laser irradiation at both energy densities had neither positive nor negative affects on cell viability. In vivo experiment results showed that, 635 nm laser irradiation of both energy densities stimulated wound healing in terms of tensile strength, whereas 809 nm laser stimulation did not cause any stimulative effect. The results of mechanical tests were compatible with the histological evaluations. In this study, it is observed that 635 nm laser irradiations of low energy densities had stimulative effects in terms of cell proliferation in vitro and mechanical strength of incisions in vivo. However, 809 nm laser irradiations at the same doses did not have any positive effect.

Keywords: Biostimulation; Cell proliferation; Low-level laser therapy (LLLT); Photobiomodulation; Therapeutic; Wound tensile strength.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation / radiation effects
  • Cell Survival / radiation effects
  • Fibroblasts / radiation effects
  • Infrared Rays*
  • Low-Level Light Therapy / methods*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Staining and Labeling
  • Tensile Strength / radiation effects
  • Wound Healing / radiation effects*