Different acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) phenotypes may explain controversial results in clinical trials. Lung-morphology is one of the ARDS-phenotypes and physiological studies suggest different responses in terms of positive-end-expiratory-pressure (PEEP) and recruitment-manoeuvres (RM) according to loss of aeration. To evaluate whether tailored ventilator regimens may impact ARDS outcomes, our group has designed a randomised-clinical-trial of ventilator settings according to lung morphology in moderate-to-severe ARDS (LIVE study).
Method: Patients will be enrolled within the first 12hours of ARDS onset. In both groups, volume-controlled ventilation with low tidal-volumes (Vt) will be used to target a plateau pressure≤30 cmH2O. In the control group, the PEEP level and inspired fraction of oxygen (FiO2) will be set using the ARDSNet table; a Vt of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight (PBW) will be set and prone position (PP) will be applied. In the intervention arm, the ventilator will be set according to lung morphology (focal/non-focal) that will be assessed according to CT-scan±chest x-ray+lung echography. For focal ARDS patients, a Vt of 8 mL/kg PBW will be used along with low PEEP and PP. For non-focal ARDS patients, a Vt of 6 mL/kg PBW will be used with RM and PEEP to reach a plateau pressure≤30 cmH2O. The primary outcome is all-cause 90-day mortality and the secondary outcomes are: in-hospital mortality, mortality at day 28, 60, 180 and 365; ventilator-free days at day 30, quality of life at one year; ventilator-associated pneumonia rate; barotrauma; ICU and hospital length of stay. This RCT is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT02149589.
Keywords: ARDS; ARDS phenotype; Lung morphology; Mechanical ventilation; Personalized medicine.
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