Omrani, Hasan, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Hadi Ebrahimi, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, and Gisou Mohaddes. Effects of chronic ghrelin treatment on hypoxia-induced brain oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat normobaric chronic hypoxia model. High Alt Med Biol. 18:145-151, 2017.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the probable antioxidant effects of ghrelin in the brain and serum and its effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in the brain in a model of chronic systemic hypoxia in rats.
Methods: Systemic hypoxia was induced by a normobaric hypoxic chamber (O2 11%) for ten days. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into control (C), chronic ghrelin (80 μg/kg/10 days) (Ghr), chronic hypoxia (CH), and CH and ghrelin (80 μg/kg/ip/10 days) (CH + Gh) groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity, and TNF-α levels were assessed in the serum and brain tissue.
Results: Our results showed that chronic ghrelin administration attenuated the CH-increased oxidative stress by decreasing MDA levels in the serum and brain tissue. Moreover, ghrelin enhanced the antioxidant defense against hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in the serum and brain tissue. Brain TNF-α levels in CH did not change significantly; however, ghrelin significantly (p < 0.001) decreased it.
Conclusion: These results indicated that ghrelin promoted antioxidative and anti-inflammatory defense under chronic exposure to hypoxia. Therefore, ghrelin might be used as a potential therapy in normobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress induced by CH.
Keywords: TNF-α; brain; ghrelin; oxidative stress; rat; systemic hypoxia.