Trimester-Specific Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations and Blood Glucose Levels Among Pregnant Women From a Fertility Clinic

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Apr 1;102(4):1350-1357. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-00022.


Context: Women with a history of infertility are at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Studies suggest higher urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations are associated with diabetes in nonpregnant populations, but the association between BPA and glucose levels among pregnant women is unclear.

Objective: To assess trimester-specific urinary BPA concentrations in relation to blood glucose levels among subfertile women.

Design: Environment and Reproductive Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study.

Setting: A fertility center in a teaching hospital.

Patients: A total of 245 women contributed at least one urine sample during first and/or second trimesters, delivered a singleton or twin pregnancy, and had available blood glucose data (2005 to 2015).

Main outcome measure: Blood glucose levels after a nonfasting 50-g glucose challenge test at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation.

Results: The specific gravity-adjusted geometric mean urinary BPA concentrations during first and second trimesters were 1.39 and 1.27 µg/L, respectively. Second-trimester BPA concentrations were positively associated with blood glucose (P, trend = 0.01). Specifically, the adjusted mean glucose levels (95% confidence interval) for women in the highest quartile of second-trimester BPA concentrations was 119 (112, 126) mg/dL compared with 106 (100, 112) mg/dL for women in the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between first-trimester BPA concentrations and glucose levels.

Conclusions: BPA exposure during the second trimester may have adverse effect on blood glucose levels among subfertile women. As the findings represent the first report suggesting a potential etiologically relevant window for BPA and glucose in humans, further studies are needed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / urine*
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro
  • Humans
  • Infertility / blood*
  • Infertility / therapy
  • Infertility / urine*
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenols / urine*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Trimesters / blood*
  • Pregnancy Trimesters / urine*
  • Reproductive Health
  • Young Adult


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Blood Glucose
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A