Breast cancer in a male-to-female transsexual. A case report

JAMA. 1988 Apr 15;259(15):2278-80.


The clinicopathological findings in a patient who developed breast carcinoma ten years after male-to-female sexual reassignment are reported. Only two other cases of transsexual men with breast carcinoma have been reported previously. All three patients received oral estrogens for prolonged periods to maintain secondary female characteristics. The controversies relating to hormonal influences in the etiology of breast cancer in men are discussed herein.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Breast Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / etiology*
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery
  • Estrogens / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mastectomy
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Transsexualism*


  • Estrogens