Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Mar 22;14(3):329. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14030329.


In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO₂ concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports.

Keywords: antimicrobial efficacy; antiviral assay; chlorine dioxide (PubChem CID: 24870); inhalation toxicity; subchronic oral toxicity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Chlorine Compounds / administration & dosage
  • Chlorine Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Chlorine Compounds / toxicity*
  • Consumer Product Safety
  • Dental Disinfectants / administration & dosage
  • Dental Disinfectants / pharmacology*
  • Dental Disinfectants / toxicity*
  • Eye / drug effects
  • Female
  • Fungi / drug effects
  • Lung / drug effects
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Models, Animal
  • Oxides / administration & dosage
  • Oxides / pharmacology*
  • Oxides / toxicity*
  • Rabbits
  • Safety*
  • Toxicity Tests


  • Chlorine Compounds
  • Dental Disinfectants
  • Oxides
  • chlorine dioxide