A Combination of Soybean and Haematococcus Extract Alleviates Ultraviolet B-Induced Photoaging

Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Mar 22;18(3):682. doi: 10.3390/ijms18030682.


Soybean-derived isoflavones have been investigated for their preventative effects against UV-induced symptoms of skin damage including wrinkle formation and inflammation. Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of Chlorophyta that contains high concentrations of the natural carotenoid pigment astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is known to be involved in retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling and previously been associated with the inhibition of activator protein (AP)-1 dependent transcription. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that a combination of soy extract (SE) and Haematococcus extract (HE) may prevent UVB-induced photoaging through specific signaling pathways, as measured by UVB-induced wrinkling on hairless mice skin and expression changes in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The 1:2 ratio of SE and HE mixture (SHM) showed the optimal benefit in vivo. SHM was found to inhibit wrinkle formation via the downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 mRNA and protein expression. SHM also inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and the transactivation of AP-1 which plays an important role in regulating MMP expression. These results highlight the potential for SHM to be developed as a therapeutic agent to prevent UVB-induced skin wrinkling.

Keywords: Haematococcus; photoaging; soybean; ultraviolet B.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Cellular Senescence / drug effects
  • Cellular Senescence / radiation effects
  • Chlorophyta / chemistry*
  • Collagen / metabolism
  • Epidermis / drug effects
  • Epidermis / metabolism
  • Epidermis / pathology
  • Epidermis / radiation effects
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / radiation effects
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / genetics
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Proteolysis
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / radiation effects
  • Skin Aging / drug effects*
  • Skin Aging / radiation effects*
  • Soybeans / chemistry*
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism
  • Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects*


  • Plant Extracts
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1
  • Collagen
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1