Background: The RV144 ALVAC-HIV prime, AIDSVAX B/E boost afforded 60% efficacy against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition at 1 year, waning to 31.2% after 3.5 years. We hypothesized that additional vaccinations might augment immune correlates of protection.
Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study of 162 HIV-negative RV144 vaccine recipients, we evaluated 2 additional boosts, given 6-8 years since RV144 vaccination, for safety and immunogenicity, at weeks 0 and 24. Study groups 1-3 received ALVAC-HIV+AIDSVAX B/E, AIDSVAX B/E, and ALVAC-HIV, respectively, or placebo.
Results: Vaccines were well tolerated. For groups 1 and 2, plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, and neutralizing antibody responses at week 2 were all significantly higher than 2 weeks after the last RV144 vaccination. IgG titers against glycoprotein (gp) 70V1V2 92TH023 increased 14-fold compared with 2 weeks after the last RV144 vaccination (14069 vs 999; P < .001). Groups 1 and 2 did not differ significantly from each other, whereas group 3 was similar to placebo recipients. Responses in groups 1 and 2 declined by week 24 but were boosted by the second vaccination, albeit at lower magnitude than for week 2.
Conclusions: In RV144 vaccinees, AIDSVAX B/E with or without ALVAC-HIV 6-8 years after initial vaccination generated higher humoral responses than after RV144, but these responses were short-lived, and their magnitude did not increase with subsequent boost.
Clinical trials registration: NCT01435135.
Keywords: HIV; RV144; prime-boost.; vaccine.
Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.