Background: Daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and insecticide-treated nets remain the main interventions for prevention of malaria in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in Africa. However, antifolate and pyrethroid resistance threaten the effectiveness of these interventions, and new ones are needed.
Methods: We conducted a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing daily TMP-SMX plus monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) to daily TMP-SMX alone in HIV-infected pregnant women in an area of Uganda where indoor residual spraying of insecticide had recently been implemented. Participants were enrolled between gestation weeks 12 and 28 and given an insecticide-treated net. The primary outcome was detection of active or past placental malarial infection by histopathologic analysis. Secondary outcomes included incidence of malaria, parasite prevalence, and adverse birth outcomes.
Result: All 200 women enrolled were followed through delivery, and the primary outcome was assessed in 194. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of histopathologically detected placental malarial infection between the daily TMP-SMX plus DP arm and the daily TMP-SMX alone arm (6.1% vs. 3.1%; relative risk, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, .50-7.61; P = .50). Similarly, there were no differences in secondary outcomes.
Conclusions: Among HIV-infected pregnant women in the setting of indoor residual spraying of insecticide, adding monthly DP to daily TMP-SMX did not reduce the risk of placental or maternal malaria or improve birth outcomes.
Clinical trials registration: NCT02282293.
Keywords: HIV; dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine; malaria; pregnancy; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
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