Background: Glycolic acid (GA), commonly present in fruits, has been used to treat dermatological diseases. Extensive exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation plays a crucial role in the induction of skin inflammation. The development of photo prevention from natural materials represents an effective strategy for skin keratinocytes.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycolic acid (GA)-induced reduction of UVB-mediated inflammatory responses.
Methods: We determined the effects of different concentrations of GA on the inflammatory response of human keratinocytes HaCaT cells and C57BL/6J mice dorsal skin. After GA was topically applied, HaCaT and mice skin were exposed to UVB irradiation.
Results: GA reduced the production of UVB-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1)] at both mRNA and protein levels. GA inhibited the UVB-induced promoter activity of NF-κB in HaCaT cells. GA attenuated the elevation of senescence associated with β-galactosidase activity but did not affect the wound migration ability. The topical application of GA inhibited the genes expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, and MCP-1 in UVB-exposed mouse skin. The mice to UVB irradiation after GA was topically applied for 9 consecutive days and reported that 1-1.5% of GA exerted anti-inflammatory effects on mouse skin.
Conclusion: We clarified the molecular mechanism of GA protection against UVB-induced inflammation by modulating NF-κB signaling pathways and determined the optimal concentration of GA in mice skin exposed to UVB irradiation.
Keywords: Glycolic acid (GA); cyclooxygenase (COX)-2; interleukin (IL)-1β; monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1); nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); ultraviolet B (UVB).
Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.