Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Depressed Adolescents: A Pilot Study

Behav Sleep Med. Mar-Apr 2019;17(2):99-111. doi: 10.1080/15402002.2017.1299737. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Abstract

Objective/Background: The purpose of the study was to pilot a five-week insomnia treatment in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) and insomnia. This was an open-label trial of a modified-group cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). Participants: Adolescents with MDD (n = 16; mean age = 17.3 +/- 1.7), characterized by the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised T-score ≥ 55 and insomnia, characterized by > 30 min to fall or return to sleep and an Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score of ≥ 7 participated. Methods: Sleep diaries, actigraphy, weekly ISI, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) were completed. Results: Paired t-tests comparing pre- and posttreatment revealed a decrease in sleep onset latency from 41 min +/- 14 min to 18 min +/- 8.9 min (t = 5.9, p = .004). Linear mixed modeling across sessions revealed that ISI (B = 11.0, SE = 0.94, p < .001), QIDS (B = 11.3, SE = 0.96, p < .001), and MFI (B = 30.0, SE = 4.4, p < .001) improved across treatment. Daily sleep diaries showed decreased wake during the night (B = 22.8, SE = 7.19, p = .008), increased sleep time (B = 382.4, SE = 71.89, p < .001), and increased quality of sleep (B = 3.7, SE = 0.37, p < .001). When asked whether group members would recommend this group, 27% responded "yes" and 73% responded "definitely yes." Conclusions: Additional controlled studies utilizing sleep-focused therapy in depressed adolescents with insomnia are warranted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pilot Projects
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / psychology
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome