Ts1Cje Down syndrome model mice exhibit environmental stimuli-triggered locomotor hyperactivity and sociability concurrent with increased flux through central dopamine and serotonin metabolism

Exp Neurol. 2017 Jul;293:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.03.009. Epub 2017 Mar 20.


Ts1Cje mice have a segmental trisomy of chromosome 16 that is orthologous to human chromosome 21 and display Down syndrome-like cognitive impairments. Despite the occurrence of affective and emotional impairments in patients with Down syndrome, these parameters are poorly documented in Down syndrome mouse models, including Ts1Cje mice. Here, we conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses, including anxiety-, sociability-, and depression-related tasks, and biochemical analyses of monoamines and their metabolites in Ts1Cje mice. Ts1Cje mice showed enhanced locomotor activity in novel environments and increased social contact with unfamiliar partners when compared with wild-type littermates, but a significantly lower activity in familiar environments. Ts1Cje mice also exhibited some signs of decreased depression like-behavior. Furthermore, Ts1Cje mice showed monoamine abnormalities, including increased extracellular dopamine and serotonin, and enhanced catabolism in the striatum and ventral forebrain. This study constitutes the first report of deviated monoamine metabolism that may help explain the basis for abnormal behaviors, including the environmental stimuli-triggered hyperactivity, increased sociability and decreased depression-like behavior in Ts1Cje mice.

Keywords: Animal model; Behavioral analysis; Catechol-O-methyltransferase; Dopamine; Down syndrome; Hyperactivity; Monoamine; Serotonin; Sociability.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1
  • Animals
  • Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases / metabolism
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Catechol O-Methyltransferase / metabolism
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16 / genetics
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dopamine / metabolism*
  • Down Syndrome* / complications
  • Down Syndrome* / genetics
  • Down Syndrome* / pathology
  • Environment*
  • Exploratory Behavior
  • Female
  • Hyperkinesis / etiology*
  • Hyperkinesis / genetics
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Mutant Strains
  • Retinal Dehydrogenase
  • Serotonin / metabolism*
  • Trisomy / genetics
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / metabolism


  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1
  • Serotonin
  • Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
  • Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
  • ALDH1A1 protein, mouse
  • Retinal Dehydrogenase
  • COMT protein, mouse
  • Catechol O-Methyltransferase
  • Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid Decarboxylases
  • Dopamine

Supplementary concepts

  • Chromosome 16, trisomy 16q