Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2017 Mar 9;11:15.
doi: 10.3389/fncir.2017.00015. eCollection 2017.

Novel Neuromodulation Techniques to Assess Interhemispheric Communication in Neural Injury and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Free PMC article

Novel Neuromodulation Techniques to Assess Interhemispheric Communication in Neural Injury and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Samuel S Shin et al. Front Neural Circuits. .
Free PMC article


Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed. This yielded approximately 170 relevant articles on human subjects or animal models. There has been a recent surge of reports on noninvasive methods such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Since these are noninvasive techniques with little to no side effects, their widespread use in clinical studies can be easily justified. The overview of novel neuromodulation methods and how they can be applied to study the role of interhemispheric communication in neural injury and neurodegenerative disease is provided. Additionally, the potential of each method in therapeutic use as well as investigating the pathophysiology of interhemispheric interaction in neurodegenerative diseases and brain injury is discussed. New technologies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation could have a great impact in understanding interhemispheric pathophysiology associated with acquired injury and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as designing improved rehabilitation therapies. Also, advances in molecular based neuromodulation techniques such as optogenetics and other chemical, thermal, and magnetic based methods provide new capabilities to stimulate or inhibit a specific brain location and a specific neuronal population.

Keywords: neuromodulation; noninvasive; optogenetic; transcranial direct current; transcranial magnetic stimulation.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Noninvasive brain stimulation and molecular-based neuromodulation techniques in human (left), monkey (middle), and rat (right). The brain of each species is scaled at 1:1.7:4.5.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 5 articles


    1. Akamatsu N., Fueta Y., Endo Y., Matsunaga K., Uozumi T., Tsuji S. (2001). Decreased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures after low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats. Neurosci. Lett. 310, 153–156. 10.1016/S0304-3940(01)02116-4 - DOI - PubMed
    1. Alexander G. M., Rogan S. C., Abbas A. I., Armbruster B. N., Pei Y., Allen J. A., et al. . (2009). Remote control of neuronal activity in transgenic mice expressing evolved G protein-coupled receptors. Neuron 63, 27–39. 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.06.014 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Alloway K. D., Smith J. B., Beauchemin K. J., Olson M. L. (2009). Bilateral projections from rat MI whisker cortex to the neostriatum, thalamus, and claustrum: forebrain circuits for modulating whisking behavior. J. Comp. Neurol. 515, 548–564. 10.1002/cne.22073 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Andreou A. P., Holland P. R., Akerman S., Summ O., Fredrick J., Goadsby P. J. (2016). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and potential cortical and trigeminothalamic mechanisms in migraine. Brain 139(Pt 7), 2002–2014. 10.1093/brain/aww118 - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Aravanis A. M., Wang L. P., Zhang F., Meltzer L. A., Mogri M. Z., Schneider M. B., et al. . (2007). An optical neural interface: in vivo control of rodent motor cortex with integrated fiberoptic and optogenetic technology. J. Neural Eng. 4, S143–S156. 10.1088/1741-2560/4/3/S02 - DOI - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms