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Review
. 2017 Mar 24;9(4):111.
doi: 10.3390/toxins9040111.

Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives

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Free PMC article
Review

Mycotoxin Biotransformation by Native and Commercial Enzymes: Present and Future Perspectives

Martina Loi et al. Toxins (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Worldwide mycotoxins contamination has a significant impact on animal and human health, and leads to economic losses accounted for billions of dollars annually. Since the application of pre- and post- harvest strategies, including chemical or physical removal, are not sufficiently effective, biological transformation is considered the most promising yet challenging approach to reduce mycotoxins accumulation. Although several microorganisms were reported to degrade mycotoxins, only a few enzymes have been identified, purified and characterized for this activity. This review focuses on the biotransformation of mycotoxins performed with purified enzymes isolated from bacteria, fungi and plants, whose activity was validated in in vitro and in vivo assays, including patented ones and commercial preparations. Furthermore, we will present some applications for detoxifying enzymes in food, feed, biogas and biofuel industries, describing their limitation and potentialities.

Keywords: application; biotransformation; degradation; enzymes; mycotoxins.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Chemical structure and features of ciclopentenone (A) and difurocoumarolactone (B) aflatoxin (AF) series. Coloured bonds indicate reactive groups involved in AFs toxicity. The double bond leading to 8,9-epoxide upon metabolic activation is indicated in red, while the lactone bond is indicated in blue. Tables show substituent groups and saturation of the C8-C9 bond in different AF analogues.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Chemical structures of (A) ochratoxin A and (B) its degradation products, ochratoxin-α and phenylalanine. The amide bond hydrolyzed by the main degrading pathway is indicated in red.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Type B fumonisins chemical structure. The ester bonds hydrolyzed by the main degrading pathways, leading to the formation of HFB1 and the two tricarballylic acid moieties, are indicated in red. The table shows substituent groups of different fumonisin analogues.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Chemical structure of trichothecenes. Groups responsible for trichothecenes toxicity are highlighted in red (epoxide) and blue (substituent groups, see the text for further details). The table shows substituent groups of different trichothecene analogues.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Chemical and structural analogies between zearalenone (A) and 17β-estradiol (B). The main chemical groups interacting with the estrogen receptors and responsible for zearalenone toxicity are highlighted in red (see the text for further details).

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