Design and evaluation of a pharmacogenomics information resource for pharmacists

J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017 Jul 1;24(4):822-831. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocx007.


Objective: To develop and evaluate a pharmacogenomics information resource for pharmacists.

Materials and methods: We built a pharmacogenomics information resource presenting Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug product labelling information, refined it based on feedback from pharmacists, and conducted a comparative usability evaluation, measuring task completion time, task correctness and perceived usability. Tasks involved hypothetical clinical situations requiring interpretation of pharmacogenomics information to determine optimal prescribing for specific patients.

Results: Pharmacists were better able to perform certain tasks using the redesigned resource relative to the Pharmacogenomic Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) and the FDA Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labeling. On average, participants completed tasks in 107.5 s using our resource, compared to 188.9 s using PharmGKB and 240.2 s using the FDA table. Using the System Usability Scale, participants rated our resource 79.62 on average, compared to 53.27 for PharmGKB and 50.77 for the FDA table. Participants found the correct answers for 100% of tasks using our resource, compared to 76.9% using PharmGKB and 69.2% using the FDA table.

Discussion: We present structured, clinically relevant pharmacogenomic FDA drug product label information with visualizations to help explain the relationships between gene variants, drugs, and phenotypes. The results from our evaluation suggest that user-centered interfaces for pharmacogenomics information can increase ease of access and comprehension.

Conclusion: A clinician-focused pharmacogenomics information resource can answer pharmacogenomics-related medication questions faster, more correctly, and more easily than widely used alternatives, as perceived by pharmacists.

Keywords: clinical decision making; evaluation; pharmacist; pharmacogenomics; structured product labeling; usability.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Databases, Factual*
  • Drug Labeling*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pharmacists*
  • Pharmacogenetics*
  • Task Performance and Analysis
  • United States
  • United States Food and Drug Administration