Purpose: The feasibility of proton postmastectomy radiation therapy in patients reconstructed with expanders has not been previously reported, limiting treatment options. We analyzed the dosimetric impact of the metallic port contained within expanders on intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) and report our techniques and quality control for treating patients in this setting.
Methods and materials: Twelve patients with the same expander model underwent 2-field IMPT as part of a prospective registry. All planning dosimetry was checked with an in-house graphic processing unit--based Monte Carlo simulation. Proton ranges through the expander were validated using a sample implant. Dosimetric impact of setup metallic port position uncertainty was evaluated. Pre- and posttreatment photographs were obtained and acute toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0.
Results: Nine patients had bilateral skin-sparing mastectomy with bilateral tissue expander reconstruction, and 3 patients had unilateral skin-sparing mastectomy and reconstruction. The left side was treated in 10 patients and the right side in 2. Target coverage and normal tissue dose uncertainties resulting from the expander were small and clinically acceptable. The maximum physician-assessed acute radiation dermatitis was grade 3 in 1 patient, grade 2 in 5 patients, and grade 1 in 6 patients.
Conclusions: Postmastectomy IMPT in breast cancer patients with expanders is feasible and associated with favorable clinical target volume coverage and normal tissue sparing, even when taking into account treatment uncertainties; therefore, these patients should be eligible to participate in clinical trials studying the potential role of proton therapy in breast cancer. We caution, however, that institutions should carry out similar analyses of the physical properties and dosimetric impact of the particular expanders used in their practice before considering IMPT.
Copyright © 2017 American Society of Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.