Objective: Splenectomy patients have a high risk of suffering severe infections, many of them preventable by vaccination. The aim of the study was to analyse the clinical epidemiological characteristics and vaccine coverage of these patients in Health Area III of the Region of Murcia.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of patients that were splenectomised during the period 1993-2012, according to the Register of the Basic Minimum Data Set. Patients were classified on the basis of splenectomy (neoplasm, haematological diseases, trauma, and others), vaccination, and vital status, using official records of health data. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0 statistics program.
Results: The sample consisted of 196 patients, of which 68.4% (n=134) were male. The mean age at which they underwent splenectomy was 50.1 years (SD: 22.2). The most common reason for removal of the spleen was neoplasia in 39.1% (n=59). Splenectomy due to trauma reasons was associated with lower patient age (p<.001) and male gender (p=.03). Vaccination coverage for Streptococcus pneumoniae was 23.8%, 5.7% for Neisseria meningitidis C, and 8.6% for Haemophilus influenzae B. Only 2.9% of patients were correctly vaccinated for all three.
Conclusions: Vaccination coverage was insufficient for this fragile patient profile. It should be taken into account in the early detection and counselling in this group so susceptible to disease, with nurses being a decisive part in the process.
Keywords: Bacterias Gramnegativas; Bacterias Grampositivas; Cobertura de vacunación; Esplenectomía; Gram-Negative bacteria; Gram-Positive bacteria; Immunisation coverage; Splenectomy.
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